Pluto’s famous heart powers icy winds on the dwarf planet | Live Science

Pluto’s icy heart is beating.

The dwarf planet’s famous heart-shaped feature, which NASA’s discovered during its epic July 2015 flyby, drives atmospheric circulation patterns on Pluto, a new study suggests.

Most of the action comes courtesy of the heart’s left lobe, a 600-mile-wide (1,000 kilometers) nitrogen-ice plain called Sputnik Planitia. This exotic ice vaporizes during the day and condenses into ice again at night, causing nitrogen winds to blow, the researchers determined. ( is dominated by nitrogen, like Earth’s, though the dwarf planet’s air is about 100,000 times thinner than the stuff we breathe.)  

These winds carry heat, particles of haze and grains of ice westward, staining the ices there with dark streaks.

“This highlights the fact that Pluto’s atmosphere and winds — even if the density of the atmosphere is very low — can impact the surface,” study lead author Tanguy Bertrand, an astrophysicist and planetary scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California, . 

And that westward direction is interesting in itself, considering that Pluto spins eastward on its axis. The dwarf planet’s atmosphere therefore exhibits an odd “retrorotation,” study team members said.

Bertrand and his colleagues studied data gathered by New Horizons during the probe’s 2015 close encounter. The researchers also performed computer simulations to model Pluto’s nitrogen cycle and weather, especially the dwarf planet’s winds.

This work revealed the likely presence of westerly winds — a high-altitude variety that races along at least 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) above the surface and a fast-moving type closer to the ground that follows Sputnik Planitia’s western edge.

That edge is bounded by high cliffs, which appear to trap the near-surface winds inside the Sputnik Planitia basin for a spell before they can escape to the west, the new study suggested.

“It’s very much the kind of thing that’s due to the topography or specifics of the setting,” planetary scientist Candice Hansen-Koharcheck, of the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, said in the same statement. 

“I’m impressed that Pluto’s models have advanced to the point that you can talk about regional weather,” added Hansen-Koharcheck, who was not involved in the new study.

New Horizons’ Pluto flyby revealed that the dwarf planet is far more complex and diverse than anyone had thought, featuring towering water-ice mountains and weird “bladed” terrain in addition to the photogenic heart (whose official name, Tombaugh Regio, honors the discoverer of Pluto, ).

The , which was published online Tuesday (Feb. 4) in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, reinforces and extends that basic message.

“Sputnik Planitia may be as important for Pluto’s climate as the ocean is for Earth’s climate,” Bertrand said. “If you remove Sputnik Planitia — if you remove the heart of Pluto — you won’t have the same circulation.”

Mike Wall’s book about the search for alien life, “” (Grand Central Publishing, 2018; illustrated by), is out now. Follow him on Twitter . Follow us on Twitter or

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Best Facebook Games List 2020 – Facebook Instant Games

Games are a great way for us to relax our mind and ease stress. However, playing the right game when you are bored can go a long way to relief your mind and give you fun. Therefore, I understand that apart from chatting with friends and loved ones some Facebook users do seek interesting games to play. Furthermore, this is why I have crafted the entire best Facebook games list 2020 to help Facebook account holders to enjoy instant games online.

Best Facebook Games List 2020 – Facebook Instant Games

Therefore, if you have not tried playing Facebook instant games before, this is a good chance to do so. However, some Facebook users do not even know where they can find these games. Also, some Facebook account users do not know they can play games on the Facebook platform. Basically, apart from chatting on Facebook, uploading your pictures and videos you can as well look for interesting games to play.

Play Facebook Games with FriendsFacebook Gameroom

Playing games on Facebook is very fun as you can play Facebook games with friends. This really sounds interesting as apart from chatting with friends and making Facebook live videos you can as well play games with your Facebook friends. However, these make it more fun filling as you have the chance to your game scoreline with your friends.

How to Access Facebook Instant Games

Therefore, if you want to access the Facebook instant games platform just go through these steps below.

  1. Another list of features will then dropdown. Here you will see the Games Feature after Friends list. Click on it, it will then take you straight to the game room

All Best Facebook Games List 2020

Here are all the best Facebook Instant games you can play to keep you stress-free and will make you enjoy your day.

  • Soccer Football League
  • Kiss Sweety
  • Fifa 2019 Football
  • Soccer Penalty 2019
  • Playing Soccer
  • Fifa 2020 Football
  • Boxing Star
  • Penalty Shootout
  • Fatal Sniper
  • Golden Boot
  • Pro Evolution Soccer 2020
  • Cristiano Ronaldo Kick n Run.io
  • Foot Soccer
  • Bullet Fury
  • PUBG Mobile
  • Bb-tin-shooter
  • Toon Cup
  • Car Racing
  • First Kiss
  • Hill Climb Racing
  • Free Fire Battle Royal
  • Racing Moto Fast Speed
  • Spiderman ultimate
  • GTA City Theft GD
  • Car Racing Top Free Ride
  • Extreme Moto Winter
  • Archer Master
  • Field of Battle
  • Beso-kissing Game
  • Spiderman Stickman Jump
  • Moto Extreme Team
  • Mad Shark
  • Batman vs Superman
  • Stickman Warrior
  • Elite Sniper for Pubg 3D
  • Car Driving Simulator
  • Puppet Soccer Challenge
  • My Dream Wedding
  • Call of Duty Battleground
  • Pubg Kill enemies 3D
  • Shooter Zombies
  • Barbie’s & Ellie’s Doctor Game
  • Surgery Simulator
  • Hot Lip Kiss
  • My New Born Pet Baby
  • Disney Barbie’s Beach Swimsuit
  • Disney Barbie’s Crazy weekend
  • Adriana Hairstyle
  • Anna Theme Room Design
  • Nail Salon
  • Baby in Kitchen
  • Barbie Fashionista Dress up
  • Frozen Christmas Hairstyle
  • Ice Cream
  • Granny SpongeBob Evil
  • Rope Cut
  • Happy Glass
  • Chess
  • Spin the Bottle
  • Candy Crush
  • Train Snake
  • Push Block
  • Castle Defense
  • Trivia Crack
  • Snow Racing.io
  • Billiards Club Las Vegas
  • Garden Tales
  • Five in a Row
  • Trivia Quiz
  • Subway Surfers

The post Best Facebook Games List 2020 – Facebook Instant Games appeared first on Bingdroid.

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Sorry Will Ferrell, Elf is the most overrated Christmas film of all time

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Elf is one of the most overrated Christmas films of all time

Elf is one of the most overrated Christmas films of all time (Picture: New Line)

It’s Christmas, which means that normal TV is thankfully replaced by an abundance of festive fun. Home Alone 1 and 2, Miracle On 34th Street, Die Hard, Jingle All The Way, I’m ready to watch it all. But, before we all start commanding the remote control, we need to talk about how Elf is the most overrated Christmas film – and maybe just overall movie – of all time. And, instead of spewing me with gifs, telling me that I sit on a throne of lies etc, just take a breath and hear me out.

Buddy the Elf is probably one of the most annoying characters to appear on the big screen. He just is. And that’s no disrespect to Will Ferrell, but a grown man in an Elf costume who eats cotton balls, shouts all the time, breaks into song and bounces around like a high-as-a-kite Tigger is not fun, endearing or cute. Imagine when Christmas is over and he’s still… there.

Also his back story is the most ridiculous thing. I know it’s a film, and it’s Christmas so we should suspend belief just a touch more, but seriously guys… Newborn Buddy is left in an orphanage, then climbs into Santa’s sack undetected, with no one realising at any point that they’re missing a literal baby. And how does Santa not clock there is a child in his bag until he gets back to the North Pole? He presumably has to open said sack to give other people their presents, but he just failed to see a baby? Not buying it.

Editorial use only. No book cover usage. Mandatory Credit: Photo by Alan Markfield/New Line Prods/Kobal/REX (5884647n) Will Ferrell Elf - 2003 Director: Jon Favreau New Line Productions USA Scene Still Elfe

Buddy the Elf is the most annoying character ever (Picture: New Line)

Instead of the elves checking his address in their all-knowing records, they let Buddy build a life for himself in the North Pole, beavering away and making crap Christmas presents. But, in all that time, did no one also stop and suggest to build him some grown-up furniture so he didn’t have to constantly crouch? They’re all elves, building is what they do. The man doesn’t even have a toilet he can fit on.

When he’s eventually told about his parents – after what seems like 30 years as an elf – he just swans off to New York, floating away from his adopted dad on an ice ledge and armed with nothing but a snow globe of the Empire State Building. How did he get there? How does he know the way? How are his clothes not dirty from the journey? Why didn’t he just take Santa’s sleigh? So. Many. Questions.

Suddenly, Buddy is just handed a job at a swanky department store as part of their Christmas display. No CRB, no checks, just letting a grown man off the street – dressed as an elf – in a job where he interacts with children. Police would shut Gimbels down in a hot minute, but it’s a festive film so no one bats an eyelid. While there, he locks eyes on Zooey Deschanel’s character, who is also dressed as an elf (for work) and they have precisely five seconds of banter before she moves on, because Buddy is someone you would swipe past on Tinder, or ghost after precisely three messages. He then walks in on her in the shower, tells her that she makes his tongue swell up (absolutely a euphemism) and takes her on a date to a revolving door. And she still falls madly in love with him. This is how low the bar is for men.

Editorial use only. No book cover usage. Mandatory Credit: Photo by Moviestore/REX (1566358a) Elf, Zooey Deschanel Film and Television

Zooey Deschanel, you’re better than this. (Picture: New Line)

Also, you’re better than this, Zooey Deschanel, and don’t let an overgrown man child dressed like an elf tell you differently.

Buddy’s dad Walter (James Caan) is also a horrible human being. He’s rude, entitled, mean to nuns, has all his priorities in exactly the wrong order, and knowingly shipped a bunch of books out with missing pages like an absolute monster. Yes, this is probably his biggest crime of all. He quite clearly doesn’t want to spend any time with Buddy – or his other son, Michael – as we’ve spent most of the movie seeing.

But then, in a blink-and-you-miss-it character arc, he then becomes a nice guy who remembers he should love his family. All of a sudden, he’s ready to roll up his sleeves and save Christmas. Where the hell did that even come from? In the space of 30 seconds, Walter has gone from the meanest man on the planet to quitting his very good job for a son who puts syrup on their pasta.

Nope, sorry, I do not buy it. Count me out. I honestly love Christmas more than most other people, for me it is the happiest time of the year, but Buddy the Elf and his terrible taste in pasta does nothing for me.

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This asylum seeker was shot in the head. Ice jailed him and gave him ibuprofen

Rolando, an indigenous man who survived a shooting and torture in Guatemala, was suffering blinding headaches when he arrived in the US

Americas

Some days, Rolando would bleed out of his eyes, ears and nose. Other days, hed lie on the floor, dizzy or barely conscious.

But every time the jailed Guatemalan asylum seeker sought help from a doctor, staff at his US immigration detention center offered the same treatment: ibuprofen.

The 27-year-old migrant survived a gunshot wound to the head in Guatemala and was suffering from excruciating headaches and possible brain hemorrhaging when he presented himself at the San Ysidro port of entry earlier this year. US authorities responded by isolating him in solitary confinement and jailing him for months at the Otay Mesa detention center in San Diego, giving him sporadic access to medical staff and medicine, his records show.

I feared I was going to die, Rolando, who asked not to use his full name due tothreats against his life, told the Guardian. I thought in this country, there is really good medical care but I wasnt getting any treatment.

Rolando made it out of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (Ice) detention alive, but his battle isnt over. Hes still fighting to get asylum, based on the physical torture and persecution he fled as an indigenous Guatemalan. Every step of his journey has collided with the Trump administrations aggressive attacks and expanding restrictions on migrants and refugees.

Now, the White House is moving to block Central Americans like Rolando from presenting their cases at the border, a move that experts agree will have devastating and fatal consequences.

I came to the United States because Id like to at least make it to 30, Rolando said.

An orphan who escaped death: I dont have anyone left

When he met the Guardian on a recent morning, Rolando carried the charger for his ankle monitor, which asylum seekers awaiting hearings are frequently forced to wear. Hes often worried about it running out of battery.

Seated inside the small legal services office of Al Otro Lado, above a pizza shopin San Diego, Rolando looked down and wove a bracelet with his hands as he talked, a practice he developed inside detention to pass the time and distract from his health problems. His native Mayan language is Qeqchi, but he talks to his attorney in Spanish, which he was forced to speak in jail.

Rolando was born into chaos in 1992 in the Petn region of northern Guatemala. His father had been a member of the armed forces but resigned and became a supporter of the pro-indigenous movement. He was killed as a result, just after Rolandos birth, and his mother died soon after from the trauma, he said.

He was an orphan at age one: My brothers and sisters couldnt take care of me and they gave me to neighbors.

Rolando became homeless and later a frequent target of violence by the people who he believes killed his father. Police tortured him when he sought help. According to his asylum application, that included placing nails in his hand and foot and burning his arms with hot knives.

In 2016, while at a soccer game, assailants shot Rolando in the head and left him with a written death threat that referenced his fathers murder. He survived, was forced into hiding and was unable to get medical attention. He said he had to remove the bullet himself. Police later refused to help and assaulted him, according to his file.

I dont have anyone left, he said, adding that fleeing to the US was his only option: Giving me an opportunity to be here is giving me an opportunity to stay alive.

He escaped to Mexico and joined a caravan last year, eventually making it to Tijuana. Then the waiting began.

As part of a vast crackdown on migration, the border patrol under Trump has instituted a policy known as metering, which limits the number of people who can apply for asylum each day. In Tijuana, this has led to a waitlist that has more than 10,000 people, with a few dozen allowed to cross daily, creating a wait time of roughly six to nine months, lawyers estimate.

Trumps Remain in Mexico policy has also resulted in nearly 50,000 migrants from Central America being returned to Mexico while their cases move forward. That has translated to overcrowded shelters, tent encampments and a struggle to access medical and legal services.

It also leaves migrants like Rolando vulnerable to the same violence they were escaping in their home countries. Rolando said he was beaten in Tijuana, suffering injuries to both his arms and forcing him to wear a cast.

In February, he was finally able to enter the US through the San Ysidro port of entry. In his initial processing, authorities took his injured arms and placed him in handcuffs.

In detention, in agony and without treatment

Once he was in custody, Rolandos health problems worsened. More than 150 pages of Ices medical records paint a picture of repeated health crises and his persistent struggle to get help.

Rolando regularly was bleeding from his eyes, ears and nose the cause of which was unclear to doctors but might have been related to his gunshot wound. Rolando said he was bleeding soon after he was taken into custody and that as a result, he was placed in isolation: They said, We dont know whats wrong with you.

Its unclear how many days he spent in solitary, but he said he had difficulty getting any treatment while isolated, and that he would spend all day in a small cell with no window to the outside. Staff would pass him meals through a small slat.

I didnt even know what was night and what was day, he recalled. I was sick already, but I was starting to get worse Nobody was coming to see me.

Once in the general population of Otay Mesa, Rolando continued to suffer periodic bleeding, and at times his head pain was so severe, he would lose consciousness, or he would lie on the ground so that he would not injure himself if he passed out.

Rolando
Rolando made bracelets and sold them to other detainees so he could buy instant soup, he recalled. Photograph: John Francis Peters/The Guardian

Rolando would frequently sign up for sick call to visit medical staff, but he said the appointments did little to help. Records show that on one visit, a nurse told him to drink more water and wash hair/head thoroughly.

Eating the facilitys meats also started to make him sick, but he often struggled to get alternative food options, even though the medical staff said he needed to change his diet. Sometimes he made bracelets and sold them to other detainees so he could buy instant soup, he recalled.

The records show that the main form of treatment Rolando received was prescriptions for ibuprofen in increasingly high doses as his pain worsened. Sometimes, he said, he ran out of ibuprofen and had difficulty getting a refill. He also received an ointment for his eyes.

Anne Rios, his attorney with Al Otro Lado, said she was stunned when she was finally able to get a copy of his medical records: It seems unbelievable, almost too absurd to be true, but its not only documented, its the governments own records.

By August, Ice had twice refused to release him while his asylum case was pending even after dozens of medical visits, including multiple to the emergency room. One ER doctor had written that he was a serious patient that presents with significant complexity of risk, adding that he might have some kind of brain hemorrhage.

He had no criminal history or immigration violations.

Rolando grew increasingly desperate. At one point, he considered giving up and deporting himself back to Guatemala a certain death, Rios said, recalling him telling her on one visit: Im gonna die here or in Guatemala, so I would at least rather go to my home country I just cant take it any more.

After a third request by Rolandos attorneys, an Ice officer ruled that he could be released but only if he paid a $5,000 bond.

For many, $5,000 might as well be $5m, said Rios. They come here with nothing, no resources, no family members, absolutely no way to pay for that.

Rolando was only able to get out when Al Otro Lado found a way to cover the amount through its bond fund.

Ice declined to comment on Rolandos case, citing his privacy. A spokeswoman said: everyone in our custody receives timely access to medical services and treatment, including a full health assessment with two weeks of custody, daily sick calls and 24-hour emergency care. A dietician ensures detainees unique health (included allergies), dietary, and religious needs are met for each meal, and all food must be visually appealing, palatable, and taste good.

A final plea: I followed the rules and I am telling the truth

Rolando struggles to understand why the US has treated him like a criminal: I followed all the rules and I asked for admission.

Trump, however, is working to make the asylum process much more restrictive than what Rolando has experienced. His administration passed a policy in July banning migrants from seeking asylum at the US-Mexico border if they came from another country, saying they must first seek protections elsewhere.

The supreme court ruled last month that Trumps ban could go into effect while legal challenges continued.

Read more: http://www.theguardian.com/us

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Michael Barrymore set for Dancing On Ice

BBC Image copyright Getty Images

Former TV presenter Michael Barrymore and Love Island star Maura Higgins are the first celebrities to be named for the new series of ITV’s Dancing On Ice.

Barrymore, 67, told This Morning he was “delighted” to be joining the contest.

He made his name hosting shows like Strike It Lucky and Kids Say the Funniest Things in the 1980s and 90s.

But his career effectively ended after a man died in a swimming pool at his home in 2001. He was arrested in 2007, but was released without charge.

He sued Essex Police for lost earnings, claiming the arrest had cost him £2.4m, but dropped the claim in July.

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BBC Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Maura Higgins reached the final of this year’s Love Island

Barrymore and Higgins will join 10 other stars on the ITV ice skating show, which will air early next year.

The Love Island finalist said: “I’ve skated once in my life for fun, so I’ve no experience at all. I’m up for the challenge. I’m more excited than scared. I’m competitive so I think that will drive me.”

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The climate crisis explained in 10 charts

From the rise and rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to possible solutions

Alps

The problem rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

The level of CO2 has been rising since the industrial revolution and is now at its highest for about 4 million years. The rate of the rise is even more striking the fastest for 66m years with scientists saying we are in uncharted territory.

c02

The causes fossil fuel burning

Billions of tonnes of CO2 are sent into the atmosphere every year from coal, oil and gas burning. There is no sign of these emissions starting to fall rapidly, as is needed.

carbon

The causes forest destruction

The felling of forests for timber, cattle, soy and palm oil is a big contributor to carbon emissions. It is also a major cause of the annihilation of wildlife on Earth.

deforestation

The consequences global temperature rise

The planets average temperature started to climb steadily two centuries ago, but has rocketed since the second world war as consumption and population has risen. Global heating means there is more energy in the atmosphere, making extreme weather events more frequent and more intense.

temp

The consequences ice melting in Greenland

Greenland has lost almost 4 trillion tonnes of ice since 2002. Mountain ranges from the Himalayas to the Andes to the Alps are also losing ice rapidly as glaciers shrink. A third of the Himalayan and Hindu Kush ice is already doomed.

greenland

The consequences rising sea levels

Sea levels are inexorably rising as ice on land melts and hotter oceans expand. Sea levels are slow to respond to global heating, so even if the temperature rise is restricted to 2C, one in five people in the world will eventually see their cities submerged, from New York to London to Shanghai.

sea levels

The consequences shrinking Arctic sea ice

As heating melts the sea ice, the darker water revealed absorbs more of the suns heat, causing more heating one example of the vicious circles in the climate system. Scientists think the changes in the Arctic may be responsible for worsened heatwaves and floods in Eurasia and North America.

arctic

The upside (I) wind and solar energy is soaring

Huge cost drops have seen renewable energy become the cheapest energy in many places and the rollout is projected to continue. Analysts also expect coal use to fall. But much government action is still required to reach the scale needed, and solve difficult problems such as aviation and farming.

wind and solar

The upside (II) electric vehicles

The global fleet of electric cars and vans is still small compared with those running on fossil fuels. But sales are growing very fast. Electric cars are cheaper to run, suggesting they will become mainstream.

electric cars

The upside (III) battery costs

Renewable energy is intermittent, depending on when the sun shines or wind blows. So storage is vital and the cost of batteries is plummeting. But other technologies, such as generating hydrogen, will also be needed.

battery costs
  • This article was amended on 20 September 2019 to correct an error in the figure given for the rate of Greenlands ice loss. The correct amount is 4 trillion tonnes of ice lost since 2002.

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10 Ways To Jonathan Van Ness Your Relationship With Yourself

It’s 2019, and Jonathan Van Ness is here to project positive energy into every facet of your life. JVN reminds us that self-acceptance and self-love is a choice that comes with effort. That effort must remain constant to keep us moving forward into an evolving state.

Here are ten ways JVN inspires each and every one of us to nourish the most important relationship of all, the relationship we have with ourselves:

1. Learn to love the skin you’re in

Perhaps loving your imperfections is easier said than done, but that’s the point. It’s a choice that you have to make to not compare what you see online or television and grow to love every unique part of you. When we learn to love the skin we’re in, we learn to want to take care of ourselves while inspiring others to do the same, universally spreading acceptance through actions.

2. Share your story with the world

Go and tell your story. We all have a voice that often goes unused. Each and every one of us has something to say so go and have a conversation that allows others to not only learn from you but more importantly, to relate and connect. Our stories are much more similar than we think, including the not so glamorous depictions filled with raw details that may be difficult for someone to share. But your story is worth telling, and your voice deserves to be heard. Share your truth because it always finds its way out, one way or another.

3. Swallow up shade with sunshine

You don’t have a moment to spare for negative energy. Smile, and make an effort to not return negative energy with the same input. It takes practice, but get in the habit of canceling out negative actions with positive ones.

4. Keep it real

Don’t fake any part of your self for anyone. Pretending implies that you’re trying to cover something up. There is nothing wrong with your most natural self. Stay true to what you believe and remember that changing on the inside doesn’t require you to make a change on the outside.

5. Explore your interests

JVN is a master hairdresser, skincare extraordinaire, ice skater, podcaster, television personality and now a stand-up comedian. Don’t stop exploring what interests you. Keep fighting to find things you love until you’re doing things you love.

6. Nourish the parts of you that aren’t flourishing

It’s easy to ignore what you naturally want to avoid. Look at yourself from an honest place and through self-acceptance comes self-care. Nourish what needs to be nourished, and balance will find you.

7. Shut down self-doubt

You’ve got this. Not one person is free of self-doubt, but the ones that succeed are the ones that learn to push through. Self-doubt debilitates you as long as you allow it to.

8. Find your outlet

Whether it’s working out, writing, creating art, or volunteering, find what projects positive energy out into the universe and brings wellness to your life.

9. Don’t be afraid to say no

Do not be scared to turn down a party, say not to a project, or say no to a group dinner with friends. Listen to your intuition by protecting the energy you have. Take care of yourself today so that tomorrow you’ll want to say yes.

10. Discover your confidence

Get excited about getting excited. Discovering the many intricacies of yourself that push you to find the courage that can spread to others. Through learning acceptance you’ll find your confidence.

Related

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Indonesia’s capital city isn’t the only one sinking

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(CNN)Indonesia has said the country would be relocating its capital city, in part because it’s sinking into the Java Sea.

But it isn’t the only city in trouble. Here’s a look at some others that are also at risk.

Houston

    Sinking cities around the world - CNN
    Houston has been sinking for decades and, like Jakarta, the over-extraction of groundwater is partly to blame.
    The Houston Chronicle reported that parts of Harris County, which contains Houston, have sunk between 10 and 12 feet (about 3 meters), since the 1920s, according to data from the US Geological Survey. Areas have continued to fall as much as 2 inches per year, an amount that can quickly add up.
    Lawmakers have tried to address the issue, creating a special purpose district meant to regulate the withdrawal of groundwater in 1975. But the problem has persisted, with privately owned wells and water suppliers continuing to pull from aquifers.

    Lagos

    travel
    The city of Lagos sits on the coast of Nigeria, constructed partly on the mainland, partly on some nearby islands. It’s also Africa’s most populous city.
    Its geography makes Lagos especially prone to flooding, and the coastline has already been eroding. As sea levels rise due to global warming, the city is increasingly at risk.
    One study from 2012 revealed that, because Nigeria’s coastline is so low, a sea level rise of just 3 to 9 feet (about 1 to 3 meters) “will have a catastrophic effect on the human activities in these regions.”
    A separate study this year found that global sea levels could rise more than 6 feet (2 meters) by the end of this century.

    New Orleans

    news
    As recently as the 1930s, just a third of New Orleans was below sea level. When Katrina hit in 2005, that number went up to half.
    The city is vulnerable to rising sea levels because it was built on loose soil and was positioned so close to on the coast. Combined with its sinking — scientists have found it to be falling at a rate of 0.39 inches (1 centimeter) a year.

    Beijing

    Sinking cities around the world - CNN
    A study from 2016 showed that Beijing is sinking by as much as 4 inches (10 centimeters) in some areas per year.
    Researchers said the cause of the sinking was depleting groundwater, similar to the situation in Jakarta and Houston.
    Beijing, which is not a coastal city, relies heavily on groundwater as its main source of water. The water has been accumulating over many years, but its extraction has dried up the soil and caused it to compact — leading to the sinking.

    Washington

    travel
    Washington is one of the most important cities in the US — and it’s also sinking.
    Research from 2015 showed that our country’s capital will drop more than 6 inches (15 centimeters) in the next 100 years.
    But unlike Jakarta, Washington’s sinking has nothing to do with aquifers or rising sea levels — it’s actually because of an ice sheet from the last ice age.
      A mile-high ice sheet pushed land beneath the Chesapeake Bay upward. When the ice sheet melted, thousands of years ago, the land settled back down. The researchers now believe that the area is gradually sinking, a process that could last thousands of years.
      But sea levels in the Chesapeake Bay are rising too, which could cause additional problems.

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      The Dire Wolf And The (American) Lion Were Not Natural Enemies

      European settlers of America probably thought they had it hard, but they had no idea of the perils they might have faced. Had things gone differently 10,000 years before, the continent’s predators might have been considerably more fearsome. Much of what we know about the North American animals of the last glacial period comes from the La Brea Tar Pits, but a recent study of those fossils shows we’ve been getting some of these extinct giants wrong.

      Located in the heart of Los Angeles, the tar pits provide a spectacular record of more than 600 species that became trapped in the tar over 50,000 years. Dr Larisa DeSantis of Vanderbilt University has been studying the teeth of entombed predators to learn their place in the ecosystems of the day.

      Along with the ancestors of gray wolves and coyotes, the pits host larger and more terrifying predators including dire wolves (yes, they were real), saber-toothed cats, and American lions.

      Contrary to the message of their chief propagandist, the frequency with which dire wolves were caught in the pits suggests they may not have been smarter than gray wolves. They did, however, have particularly terrifying teeth, and the greatest bite force of any member of the dog family, even when allowing for their size. The American lion, on the other hand, was considerably bigger than its African equivalent.

      Their disappearance, and that of the equally dentally fearsome saber-toothed cats, roughly coincided with both the arrival of the first people in North America and the ending of the last ice age. The debate as to whether it was humans or the changing climate that caused the extinction of these giants is among the fiercest in palaeontology.

      In Current Biology, DeSantis shows the answers are more likely to vary by species than previously recognized. “Isotopes from the bones previously suggested that the diets of saber-toothed cats and dire wolves overlapped completely, but the isotopes from their teeth give a very different picture,” DeSantis said in a statement

      If predators with the same prey went extinct about the same time, it’s reasonable to assume they had the same cause. However, DeSantis continued, “The cats, including saber-toothed cats, American lions and cougars, hunted prey that preferred forests, while it was the dire wolves that seemed to specialize on open-country feeders like bison and horses. While there may have been some overlap in what the dominant predators fed on, cats and dogs largely hunted differently from one another.” This division held even as climatic conditions shifted.

      Prey differentiation increases the chances the extinctions, despite occurring at similar times, had different causes, and rules out the possibility that competition between them was responsible for some species’ demise.

      Meanwhile, DeSantis noted, once these large predators disappeared, species like cougars and coyotes that previously fed on smaller prey or scavenged others’ kills were able to expand to fill the new apex niches. Coyotes benefited from the loss of big cats by moving into forest territory as well as consuming larger prey, while the diets of gray wolves and cougars changed less.

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      The Aerosols of Earth

      Image Credit: NASA/Joshua Stevens/Adam Voiland

      [NASA, Yvette Smith] Take a deep breath. Even if the air looks clear, it is nearly certain that you will inhale millions of solid particles and liquid droplets. These ubiquitous specks of matter are known as aerosols, and they can be found in the air over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice and every ecosystem in between.

      If you have ever watched smoke billowing from a wildfire, ash erupting from a volcano or dust blowing in the wind, you have seen aerosols. Satellites like NASA’s Earth-observing satellites, Terra, Aqua, Aura and Suomi NPP, “see†them as well, though they offer a completely different perspective from hundreds of kilometers above Earth’s surface. A version of a NASA model called the Goddard Earth Observing System Forward Processing (GEOS FP) offers a similarly expansive view of the mishmash of particles that dance and swirl through the atmosphere.

      The visualization above highlights GEOS FP model output for aerosols on August 23, 2018. On that day, huge plumes of smoke drifted over North America and Africa, three different tropical cyclones churned in the Pacific Ocean, and large clouds of dust blew over deserts in Africa and Asia. The storms are visible within giant swirls of sea salt aerosol (blue), which winds loft into the air as part of sea spray. Black carbon particles (red) are among the particles emitted by fires; vehicle and factory emissions are another common source. Particles the model classified as dust are shown in purple. The visualization includes a layer of night light data collected by the day-night band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi NPP that shows the locations of towns and cities.

      via NASA

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